The Academy of Sciences of the Czech rebublic - ASCR

History in short

IPP History


2024 01.01. The EUROfusion General Assembly appointed Prof. Radomir Panek, director if IPP CAS, as its new Chair for a two-year term from 2024 to 2025.

2023 September The first phase of the civil construction works for the COMPASS-U project has been completed.

2022 30.05. The new office building of IPP was inaugurated on 30 May, 2022 in the presence of the president of the CAS and other important guests.

2021 December The new administrative building of IPP was completed.

2021 22.10. The COMPASS tokamak was removed from the IPP's experimental hall.

2020 08.06. PALS laser system is celebrating 20 years of operation.

2020 April Construction of the new main building of the Institute of Plasma Physics of the Czech Republic has begun. cooperation between CAS and IPP with the the United States Department of Energy
Cooperation between CAS and IPP with the the United States Department of Energy.
2020 09.02. The Solar Orbiter, launched from the US Cape Canaveral to the journey towards Sun in the night February 9/10, 2020. A key component of the probe is a unique optical system developed and manufactured in TOPTEC Centre.
2020 30.01. The COMPASS team performed a jubilee shot number 20,000.       
2020 24.01. Radomír Pánek was inaugurated Director of IPP for the second term.
2019 18.11. IPP celebrated 60 years since its foundation. The social event took place in the Ambassador Hotel hall on Wenceslas Square.
2019 23.10. President of CAS and Director of IPP confirmed the beginning of cooperation between CAS and IPP with the the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
2018 24.09. The 45th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics was held in Prague (more than 800 participants).
2018 01.03. The Scientific Department of Thermal Plasma was dissolved and a new Department of Plasma Chemical Technologies was established (head Dr. Michal Jeremiáš).
2018 28.02 The COMPASS-U project have received the formal grant agreement for a funding.
2017 24.09. The 18th International Symposium on Laser Aided Plasma Diagnostics was held in Prague.
2016 05.09. The 29th edition of the Symposium on Fusion Technology (SOFT 2016) took place in Prague. The event was organized jointly by IPP and the Research Centre Řež (more than 1,000 participants).
2016 30.05. PALS laser system fired the jubilee shot with the number of 50,000.

2015 01.02. Dr. Radomír Pánek became Director of IPP.

2012 15.03. Establishment of the Laboratory of Plasma Technologies in Prague - Letňany.

TWENTY ZEROESCompass - David Cameron
David Cameron visit to the Tokamak

2010 01.10. Establishment of the Regional Centre for Specialized Optical and Optoelectronic Systems in Turnov, "TOPTEC".
2010 01.02. Ing. Petr Křenek, CSc. becomes Director of IPP.
2009 19.02. Official start of operation of the COMPASS tokamak.
2008 09.12. First plasma in the COMPASS tokamak.
2008 01.04. COMPASS Inauguration Ceremony in the presence of representatives from Euratom, UKAEA, EFDA, AS CR and the Government of the Czech Republic.
2007 PALS Laboratory organizes "Fascination of Light" - a travelling exhibition of light and optical technologies - in the Trade Fair Palace in Prague (supported by BMBF, EC, LASERLAB EUROPE and NEMO)
2007 20.10. COMPASS tokamak arrives in Prague.
2007 IPP organizes XXVIII. International conference on phenomena in ionized gases (ICPIG) in Prague.
2007 IPP organizes "Fusion Expo" - a travelling exhibition of EC (Euratom), on the premises of the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague.
2007 01.01. The legal form of the Institute is changed to "public research institution" with full name Institute of Plasma Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i.
2006 01.01. Optical Development Workshop attached to the Institute of Plasma Physics; a new scientific department of optical diagnostics established.
2005 07.07. IPP accepts the offer by UKAEA to give the COMPASS tokamak over to Prague; "Group COMPASS" established to take care of the transfer (Pavel Chráska, Radomír Pánek, Jan Stöckel, Pavol Pavlo, František Žáček, Martin Hron).
2004 Plasmachemical reactor Plasgas put in operation (Milan Hrabovský, Vladimir Kopecký).
2004 PALS Research Centre becomes a member of the consortium LASERLAB-EUROPE composed of of 17 laboratories from 10 European countries.
2000 08.06. Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) – official start-up of the laser system in the Research Centre PALS, a joint research centre of IPP and the Institute of Physics (Karel Jungwirth, Jiří Ullschmied, Karel Rohlena, …).


1999 22.12. Contract of Association EURATOM/IPP.CR signed (Jan Stöckel).
1999 IPP organizes the 14th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry, attended by 500 experts worldwide.
1998 IPP organizes the International Congress on Plasma Physics, together with the 25th European Physical Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, attended by nearly 1000 experts worldwide.
1998 01.06. Doc. Dr. Ing. Pavel Chráska, DrSc. becomes Director of IPP.International Board of Advisors
International Board of Advisors

1997 30.06. ASTERIX IV – Agreement on transfer of the Asterix IV laser system from the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics (Garching) to the Institute of Plasma Physics and the Institute of Physics.
1996 Experimental facility CAPEX – fast capillary discharge in argon-filled capillary („portable“ x-ray laser) begins operation (Karel Koláček, Jiří Schmidt, Milan Řípa, Vladislav Boháček, …).
1996 IPP organizes the 11th International Conference on High Power Particle Beams, with a worldwide participation.
1995 IPP organizes Prague meeting of the international steering committee of UNESCO project „International Centre for Dense Magnetised Plasma“.
1994-2000 Numerical simulations of anomalous ion diffusion in LF turbulence of plasma in tokamak in a simple model of stationary periodic potential (Ladislav Krlín, Vojtěch Svoboda, Jan Stöckel).
1994 Installation of 4-channel x-ray spectrometer built at IPP on tokamak TCV at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Vojtěch Piffl, Jaroslav Rauš, Aleš Krejčí).
1993 Beginning of studies of gliding discharge in flowing gas (Milan Šimek).
1993 Beginning of studies of corona discharges in flowing liquids and gases (Pavel Šunka, Václav Babický, Martin Člupek, Petr Lukeš).
1990-1992 Fundamental restructuring of IPP: staff reduction by 50%, simplification of management, emphasis on scientific outputs.
1990 01.06. Doc. Ing. Pavel Šunka, CSc. becomes director.
1990-1994 Numerical simulations of interaction of lower hybrid waves with electrons and alpha-particles in tokamak reactor (Pavol Pavlo, Ladislav Krlín).
1990-1994 EURATOM project studies of the thermonuclear experimental reactor ITER (Pavol Pavlo, Ladislav Krlín, Richard Klíma).


1989 17.11. 30th anniversary celebration (the date of the Velvet Revolution).
1989 Generator of focused shock waves for disintegration of kidney stones – finished in cooperation with the First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University (Pavel Šunka, Jiří Beneš, …).
1988 Theory of Langmuir solitons and strong plasma turbulence – first international co-author in the prestigious series „Plasma Theory Issues“ (Karel Jungwirth).
1985-1990 Deterministic chaos – numerical simulation of non-linear interaction of electromagnetic waves with plasma (Ladislav Krlín, Pavol Pavlo, Zdeněk Gášek).
1985-1989 X-ray analyzer developed and built at IPP confirmed dense plasma heating to keV temperature on the GOL facility (Jaroslav Rauš, Vojtěch Piffl, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk).
1985 Addition of the materials engineering group (Pavel Chráska, …).
1984 Z-pinch experimental facility – operation of discharge with pulsed gas pumping – an intense x-ray source (Aleš Krejčí,…).
1983-1984 Reconstruction of tokamak TM-1-MH to CASTOR – Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences TORus (František Žáček, Jan Stöckel, …).
1982 Using the waveguide structure developed at IPP, a record current of 150-200 kA was generated in tokamak T7 (Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow).
1975 Virtual Cathode of High-Power Electron Beam

1981 Addition of the water-stabilized plasma torch group – transfer from the Aquacentrum company.
1980 Force interaction of HF waves with plasma – fundamental, still cited theoretical studies (Richard Klíma, Václav Petržílka).

1975 Virtual cathode of high power electron beam (REBEX)
1979 Department of Applied Plasma Physics established: synthesis of NOx, surface layers of Si3N4 (Jindřich Musil, Laco Bárdoš, …).
1978 OREBIA-REX – a complex simulation experiment (Karel Jungwirth).
1978 01.01. RNDr. Zdeněk Tlučhoř becomes director.
1977 Tokamak TM-1-MH – start-up of the first tokamak in Eastern Europe outside the Soviet Union (Vladimír Kopecký, …)
1977 Eighth European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Prague – international recognition of the institute‘s research.
1976 Experimental toroidal facility INTERMEZZO – confirmation of the Klíma’s theory (Jindřich Musil, Jiří Ďatlov, …).
1975 Virtual cathode of high power electron beam – prediction of formation and utilization (Karel Jungwirth); experimental confirmation on the REBEX facility: generation of super-thermal electrons, collective acceleration of ions and efficiency increase of plasma heating using the virtual cathode effect (Pavel Šunka, Jiří Ullschmied)
1975 Virtual cathode of high power electron beam (REBEX)
1973 Fundamental, frequently cited hydrodynamic theory of electric current generation by HF field in plasma (Richard Klíma).
1973 Transformation of Bernstein Waves – still frequently cited theoretical study (Vladimír Kopecký, Josef Preinhaelter).
1972 Capture of electron beam in plasma waves generated by this beam – theoretical prediction of a universal, strongly non-linear effect (Karel Jungwirth); experimental confirmation on the ELMAN II facility (Pavel Šunka, Jiří Ullschmied, Vojtěch Piffl).
1971 Electrostatic oscillations in cold inhomogeneous plasma – the first correct interpretation of the complex roots of the "dispersion function" of cold inhomogeneous plasma (Zdeněk Sedláček).


1967 Beam-Plasma Symposium
1967 International Symposium on Beam-Plasma Interaction

1968 Emigration of many important researchers: Miloš Seidl, Jiří Teichmann, Ladislav Šípek, Jan Václavík, Jiří Jančařík, Charley Buxbaum, …

1967 International Symposium on Beam-Plasma Interaction in Prague – success of the Prague beam school. Experimental confirmation of theoretically predicted spectra of beam instabilities (Miloš Seidl, Pavel Šunka).
1967 First National Seminar on Wave Processes in Plasma (since 1971 Czechoslovak Seminar on Plasma Physics and Technology) – first from the series of popular seminars organized by the institute in Liblice, Zvíkov and Prague – latest was the 19th one in 2000, organized together with Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University.
1964 Quasilinear transformation of waves in plasma - theoretical discovery (Karel Jungwirth at the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow)
1963 Experimental facility ELMAN I – start-up of linear magnetic plasma trap with an electron beam (Miloš Seidl, …)
1963 Institute of Vacuum Electronics renamed to the Institute of Plasma Physics
1960 Development of medical betatron in cooperation with Chirana, a medical equipment producer (Karel Rytina, Lubomír Pikulík, ...)


Institute of Vacuum Electronics of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences is established from a group of 50 former employees of the Research Institute of Vacuum Electrical Technology, particularly from the Dept. of Accelerators; director: Ing. Jan Váňa.